Wilkins, John, A discovery of a new world, 1684

Bibliographic information

Author: Wilkins, John
Title: A discovery of a new world
Year: 1684
City: London
Publisher: Gellibrand
Number of Pages: [5 Bl.], 160 S., [4 Bl.], 184 S. : Ill.

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Document ID: MPIWG:UQGMQSEM
Permanent URL: http://echo.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/MPIWG:UQGMQSEM

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Copyright: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (unless stated otherwise)
License: CC-BY-SA (unless stated otherwise)
Table of contents
1. Page: 0
2. Ex Libris James S. Dearden Rampside Page: 2
3. A DISCOVERY OF A New , OR, Page: 5
4. In Two Parts. Page: 5
5. The Fifth Edition Corrected and Amended. LONDON, Page: 5
6. The Epiſtle to the READER. Page: 7
7. The Propoſitions that are proved in this Diſcourſe. PROPOSITION I. Page: 10
8. PROP. II. Page: 10
9. PROP. III. Page: 10
10. PROP. IV. Page: 10
11. PROP. V. Page: 10
12. PROP. VI. Page: 10
13. PROP. VII. Page: 11
14. PROP. VIII. Page: 11
15. PROP. IX. Page: 11
16. PROP. X. Page: 11
17. PROP. XI. Page: 11
18. PROP. XII. Page: 11
19. PROP. XIII. Page: 11
20. PROP. XIV. Page: 11
21. The Firſt Book. That the MOON May be a WORLD. The Firſt Propoſition, by way of Preface. Page: 13
22. Sed vanus ſtolidis hæc omnia finxerit Error. Page: 18
23. Solis lunæq; labores. Page: 19
24. Cum fruſtra reſonant æra auxiliaria Lunæ. Page: 20
25. Una laboranti poterit ſuccerrere Lunæ. Page: 20
26. Gantus & è cælo poſſunt deducere Lunam. Page: 20
27. Cantus & ſi curru lunam deducere tentant, Et facerent, ſi non æra repulſa ſonant. Page: 21
28. PROP. II. That a Plurality of Worlds doth not contradict any Principle of Reaſon or Faith. Page: 26
29. Æſtuas infelix auguſto limite mundi. Page: 28
30. PROP. III. That the Heavens do not conſiſt of any ſuch pure Matter, which can priviledge them from the like Change and Corruption, as theſe Inferiour, Bodies are liable unto. Page: 39
31. Necnon Oceano paſci phæbumque polumq; Gredimus. Page: 42
32. PROP. IV. That the Moon is a Solid, Compacted, Opacous Body. Page: 50
33. PROP. V. That the Moon hath not any Light of her own. Page: 55
34. PROP. VI. That there is a World in the Moon, bath been the direct Opinion of many Ancient, with ſome Modern Mathematicians, and may probably de deduc’d from the Tenents of others. Page: 64
35. PROP. VII. That thoſe Spots and brighter parts, which by our ſight may be diſtinguiſhed in the Moon, do ſhew the difference betwixt the Sea and Land, in that other World. Page: 74
36. PROP. VIII. The Spots repeſent the Sea, and the brighter parts the Land. Page: 80
37. PROP. IX. That there are high Mountains, deep Vallies, and ſpacious Plains in the Body of the Moon. Page: 89
38. PROP. X. That there is an Atmo-ſphæra, or an Orb of groſs, Vaporous Air, immediately encompaſſing the body of the Moon. Page: 104
39. PROP. XI. That as their World is our Moon, ſo our World is their Moon. Page: 108
40. Provehimur portu, terræque urbeſque recedunt. Page: 110
41. PROP. XII. Page: 124
42. PROP. XIII. Page: 136
43. PROP. XIV. Page: 147
44. FINIS. Page: 172
45. A DISCOURSE Concerning a Rem Planet. Tending to prove That ’tis probable our EARTH is one of the PLANETS. The Second Book. By John Wilkins, late L. Biſhop of Cheſter. Page: 173
46. LONDON: Printed by J. D. for John Gellibrand, at the Golden Ball in St. Paul’s Church-Yard. M.DC.LXXXIV. Page: 173
47. To the Reader. Page: 175
48. PROP. I. Page: 179
49. PROP. II. Page: 179
50. PROP. III. Page: 179
51. PROP. IV. Page: 179
52. PROP. V. Page: 179
53. PROP. VI. Page: 180
54. PROP. VII. PROP. VIII. PROP. IX. PROP. X. Page: 180
55. That the EARTH May be a PLANET. PROP. I. Page: 181
56. PROP. II. Page: 201
57. PROP. III. Page: 215
58. PROP. IV. Page: 236
59. PROP. V. That the Scripture, in its proper conſtru-ction, does not any where affirm the Immobility of the Earth. Page: 246
60. PROP. VI. That there is not any Argument from the Words of Scripture, Principles of Na-ture, or Obſervations in Aſtronomy, which can ſuſſiciently evidence the Earth to be in the Gentre of the Uni-verſe. Page: 258
61. PROP. VII. Tis probable that the Sun is in the Gentre of the World. Page: 279
62. PROP. VIII. That there is not any ſufficient reaſon to prove the Earth incapable of thoſe mo-tions which Copernicus aſcribes un-to it. Page: 286
63. Provebimur portu, terræque, verbeſq; recedunt. Page: 288
64. PROP. IX. That it is more probable the Earth does move, than the Sun or Heavens. Page: 321
65. PROP. X. That this Hypotheſis is exactly agreeable to common appearances. Page: 342
66. Quicunq; ſolam mente præcipiti petit Page: 360
67. Brevem replere non valentis ambitum, # Pudebit aucti nominis. Page: 361
68. FINIS. Page: 364
1
[Empty page]
211[Handwritten note 1]22[Handwritten note 2]
Ex Libris
James
S. Dearden
Rampside
333[Handwritten note 3]
4
[Empty page]
544[Handwritten note 4]
A
DISCOVERY

OF
A
New
,
OR
,
A DISCOURSE Tending
to
prove, that ’tis Probable there
may
be another Habitable WORLD
in
the MOON.
With a Diſcourſe concerning the Proba-
bility
of a Paſſage thither.
Unto which
is
Added, A Diſcourſe concerning a
New
Planet, Tending to Prove, That
’tis
Probable Our Earth is one of the
Planets
.
In Two Parts.
By John Wilkins, late Lord Biſhop of
Cheſter
.
The Fifth Edition Corrected and Amended.
LONDON,
Printed by J. Rawlins for John Gellibrand,
at
the Golden-Ball in St.
Pauls Church-
Yard
.
MDCLXXXIV.
655[Handwritten note 5]66[Handwritten note 6]77[Handwritten note 7]
7
The Epiſtle to the READER.
IF amongſt thy leiſure hours, thou canſt
ſpare
any for the pernſal of this diſcourſe,
and
doſt look to find ſomewhat in it which
may
ſerve for thy Information and Benefit:
let me then adviſe thee to come unto it with
an
equal Mind, not ſwayed by Prejudice, but
indifferently
reſolved to Aſſent unto that
Truth
which upon Deliberation ſhall ſeem
moſt
probable unto thy Reaſon, and then I
doubt
not, but either thon wilt agree with me
in
this Aſſertion, or at leaſt not think it to
be
as far from Truth, as it is from common
Opinion
.
Two Cautions there are which I would wil-
lingly
Admoniſh thee of in the Beginning.
I. That thou ſhouldſt not here look to find
any
Exact, Accurate Treatiſe, ſince this
Diſcourſe
was but the Fruit of ſome Lighter
Studies
, and thoſe too budled up in a ſhort
time
, being firſt thought of, and finiſhed in
the
ſpace of ſome few Weeks, and therefore
you
cannot in Reaſon Expect, that it ſhould be
ſo
poliſhed, as perhaps, the Subject would re-
quire
, or the leiſure of the Author might have
done
it.
8The Epiſtle to the Reader.
2. To remember that I promiſe only pro-
bable
Arguments for the Proof of this Opini-
on
, and therefore you muſt not look that every
Conſequence
ſhould be of an undeniable De-
pendance
, or that the Truth of each Argu-
ment
ſhould be Meaſured by its Neceſſity.
I
grant
, that ſome Aſtronomical Appearances
may
poſſibly be ſolved otherwiſe than here
they
are.
But the thing I aim at is this,
that
probably they may be ſo Solved, as I
have
here ſet them down:
Which, if it be
granted
( as I think it muſt) then I doubt
not
, but the indifferent Reader will find
ſome
Satisfaction in the main thing that is
to
be Proved.
Many Ancient Philoſophers of the better
Note
, have formerly defended this Aſſertion,
which
I have here laid down;
and it were
to
be wiſhed, that ſome of us would more ap-
ply
our Endeavors unto the Examination of
theſe
Old Opinions, which though they have
for
a long time lain neglected by others, yet
in
them may you find many Truths well wor-
thy
your Pains and Obſervation.
’Tis a
falſe
Conceit for us to think, that amongſt the
Ancient
Variety and ſearch of Opinions, the beſt
hath
ſtill prevailed.
Time (ſaith the Lear-
ned
Verulam) ſeems to be of the Nature of
a
River or Stream, which carrieth down to
us
that which is Light or blown up, but
9The Epiſtle to the Reader. etb that which is Weighty and Solid.
It is my Deſire, that by the Occaſion of this
Diſcourſe
, I may raiſe up ſome more Active
Spirit
to ſearch after other hidden and un-
known
Truths.
Since it muſt needs be a great
Impediment
unto the Growth of Sciences, for
Men
ſtill ſoto Plod on upon beaten Principles,
as
to be afraid of entertaining any thing that
may
ſeem to contradict them.
An unwilling-
neſs
to take ſuch things into Examinati-
on
, is one of thoſe Errours of Learning in
theſe
times obſerved by the judicions Veru-
lam
.
Lueſtionleſs, there are many ſeeret
Truths
, which the Ancients have paſſed
over
, that are yet left to make ſome of our
Age
Famous for their Diſcovery.
If by this Occaſion I may provoke any Rea-
der
to an Attempt of this Nature, I ſhall
think
my ſelf Happy, and this Work Succeſs-
ful
,
Farewell.
10
The Propoſitions that are proved in
this
Diſcourſe.
PROPOSITION I.
THat the ſtrangeneſs of this Opinion is no Suffi-
cient
Reaſon why it ſhould be Rejected, be-
cauſe
other certain Truths have been formerly eſtee-
med
ridiculous, and great Abſurdities entertai-
ned
by common conſent.
By way of Preface.
PROP. II.
That a Plurality of Worlds does not contradict
any
Principle of Reaſon or Faith.
PROP. III.
That the Heavens do not conſiſt of any ſuch
pure
matter which can priviledge them from the
like
change and Gorruption, as theſe inferiour Bo-
dies
are liable unto.
PROP. IV.
That the Moon is a Solid, Gompacted, Opacious
Body
.
PROP. V.
That the Moon hath not any Light of her own.
PROP. VI.
That there is a World in the Moon, bath been
the
direct Opinion of many Ancients, with ſome
Modern
Mathematicians, and may probably be
deduced
ſrom the Tenents of others.
11
PROP. VII.
That thoſe Spots and brighter Parts, which by
our
Sight may be diſtinguiſbed in the Moon, do
ſhew
the difference betwixt the Sea and Land in
that
other World.
PROP. VIII.
That the Spots repreſents the Sea, and the
brighter
parts the Land.
PROP. IX.
That there are bigh Mountains, deep Vallies,
and
ſpacious plains in the Body of the Moon.
PROP. X.
That there is an Atmo-ſphæra, or an Orb of
groſs
Vaporous Air, immediately encompaſſing the
Body
of the Moon.
PROP. XI.
That as their World is our Moon, ſo our World
is
their Moon.
PROP. XII.
That ’tis probable there may be ſuch Meteors
belonging
to that World in the Moon, as there are
with
us.
PROP. XIII.
That ’tis probable there may be Inhabitants in
this
other World;
but of what kind they are, is
uncertain
.
PROP. XIV.
That ’tis poſſible for ſome of our Poſterity to
find
out Gonveyance to this other World, and if
there
be Inhabitants there, to have Commerce
with
them.
12Books ſold by John Gellibrand.
BAudrandi Geographia ordine litterarum
diſpoſita
, 2 Vol.
Paris 1682. Folio.
Franciſci de le Boe Sylvii opera Medica cum
Collegio
Noſocomico, Geneva, 1681.
Folio.
Diemerbroeck Anatomia, in Quarto.
Zodiacus Medico-Gallicus in Tribus Tomis
pro
Tribus Annis, Quarto.
Plutarchs Morals Tranſlated from the
Greek
by ſeveral Hands into Engliſh, Octavo.
Biſhop Wilkins Diſcourſe of Prayer and
Preaching
, in Octavo.
------Mathematical Magick, in Octavo.
-----Sermons upon ſeveral Occaſions be-
fore
the King, to which is added a Diſcourſe
concerning
the Beauty of Providence, by the
ſame
Author, in Octavo.
Sir William Temples Obſervations upon
the
Low-Countries, in Octavo.
-----Miſcellanea, in Oetavo.
Sir John Temples Hiſtory of the Iriſh Re-
bellion
, in Octavo.
Lucius Florus cum Notis Johan. Min-Ellii,
in
Twelves.
Virgillii Maronis Opera cum Notis Johan.
Min-Ellii, in Twelves.
13
The Firſt Book.
That
the
MOON

May
be a
WORLD
.
The Firſt Propoſition, by way of Preface.
That the ſtrangeneſs of this Opinion is no ſuffici-
ent
reaſon why it ſhould be rejected, becauſe
other
certain Truths have been formerly eſtee-
med
ridiculous, and great Abſurdities entertai-
ned
by common Gonſent.
THere is an earneſtneſs and hungring after
Novelty
, which doth ſtill adhere unto
all
our Natures, and it is part of that
Primitive
Image, that wide Extent and infi-
nite
Capacity at firſt created in the Heart of
Man
.
For this, ſince its depravation in Adam,
perceiving
it ſelf altogether emptyed of any
good
, doth now catch after every new Thing,
conceiving
that poſſibly it may find Satisfaction
among
ſome of its fellow Creatures.
But our
Enemy
the Devil (who ſtrives ſtill to
142That the Moon may be a World. our Gifts, and beat us with our own Wea-
pons
) hath ſo contriv’d it, that any Truth doth
now
ſeem diſtaſtful for that very Reaſon, for
which
Errour is entertain’d:
Novelty. For
let
ſome upſtart Hereſie be ſet abroach, and
preſently
there are ſome out of a curious Hu-
mour
;
others, as if they watched an occaſion of
ſingularity
, will take it up for Canonical, and
make
it part of their Creed and Profeſſion;
whereas ſolitary Truth cannot any where find
ſo
ready Entertainment;
but the ſame Novel-
ty
which is eſteemed the Commendation of
Errour
, and makes that acceptable, is counted
the
fault of Truth, and cauſes that to be Re-
jected
.
How did the incredulous World gaze at Co-
lumbus
;
when he promiſed to diſcover ano-
ther
part of the Earth, and he could not for
a
long time, by his Confidence, or Argu-
ments
, induce any of the Chriſtian Princes, ei-
ther
to aſſent unto his Opinion, or to go to the
charges
of an Experiment?
Now if be, who
had
ſuch good grounds for his Aſſertion, could
find
no better Entertainment among the wiſer
ſort
, and upper end of the World;
’tis not
likely
then that this Opinion which I now deli-
ver
, ſhall receive any thing from Men of theſe
Days
, eſpecially our Vulgar Wits, but Miſ-
belief
and Deriſion.
It hath always been the unhappineſs of new
Truths
in Philoſophy, to be derided by thoſe
that
are ignorant of the cauſes of things, and
rejected
by others, whoſe perverſeneſs ties
them
to the contrary Opinion, Men whoſe en-
vious
Pride will not allow any new thing
153That the Moon may be a World. Truth, which they themſelves were not the
firſt
Inventors of.
So that I may juſtly expect
to
be accuſed of a Pragmatical Ignorance, and
bold
Oſtentation;
eſpecially ſince for this O-
pinion
, Xenophanes, a Man whoſe Authority
was
able to add ſome Credit to his Aſſertion,
could
not eſcape the like Cenſure from others.
For Natales Comes ſpeaking of that Philoſo-
pher
, and this his Opinion, ſaith thus, Nonnulli
11Mytholog.
lib
. 3. c. 17
ne nihil ſciſſe videantur, aliqua nova monſtr a in
Philoſophiam
introducunt, ut alicujus rei inven-
tores
fuiſſe apparent.
‘Some there are, who leſt
they might ſeem to know nothing, will bring
up monſtrous abſurdities in Philoſophy, that
ſo afterward they may be famed for the In-
vention of ſomewhat.
The ſame Author
doth
alſo in another place accuſe Anaxagoras
of
Folly for the ſame Opinion.
Eſt enim non
22Lib. 7. c. 1 ignobilis gradus ſtultitiæ, vel ſineſcias quid dicas,
tamen
velle de rebus propoſitis hanc vell illam par-
tem
ſtabilire.
’Tis none of the worſt kinds of
Folly
, boldly to affirm one ſide or other when
a
Man knows not what to ſay.
If theſe Men were thus cenſur’d, I may juſt-
ly
expect to be derided of moſt, and to be be-
lieved
by few or none;
eſpecially ſince this
Opinion
ſeems to carry in it ſo much ſtrange-
neſs
, and contradiction to the general conſent
of
others.
But however, I am reſolved that
this
ſhall not be any diſcouragement, ſince I
know
that it is not common Opinion that can
either
add or detract from the Truth.
For,
1. Other Truths have been formerly eſtee-
med
altogether as ridiculous as this can be.
164That the Moon may be a World.
2. Groſs abſurdities have been entertain’d
by
general Opinion.
I ſhall give an Inſtance of each, that ſo I
may
the better prepare the Reader to conſider
things
without a Prejudice, when he ſhall ſee
that
the common Oppoſition againſt this which
I
affirm, cannot any way derogate from its
Truth
.
1. Other Truths have been formerly accoun-
ted
as ridiculous as this.
I ſhall ſpecifie that
of
the Antipodes, which have been denyed,
and
laught at by many wiſe Men and great
Scholars
, ſuch as were Herodotus, Chryſoſtom,
11Vid. Foſeph.
Acaſto
de
nat
. novi
Grbis
lib. 1.
cap
. 1.
Auſtin, Lactantius, the Venerable Bede, Lucre-
tius
the Poet, Procopius, and the Voluminous
Abulenſis
, together with all thoſe Fathers or
other
Authors who denyed the roundneſs of
the
Heavens.
Herodotus counted it ſo horri-
ble
abſurdity, that he could not forbear laugh-
ing
to think of it.
Γελῶ δρῶο γῆς {πρι}ύδ(ου}ς γ{ρἀ} ψαν-
τας
, {πο}λλ{οὺ}ς ἤδη {καὶ} {οὐ} δένα νόον {χο}ντας {ὀξ}ηγ{οα} {μέν}ον ὂι
’Ωκεαοόντε
ρεόντα γ{ρά} Φ{ου}σι, πέ{ρι}ξ τ{ὴν} τε γ{ὴν} {οῦ}οαν
κυκλοτ
ερέα ὤς \’δπὸ τόρν{ου}.
‘I cannot chooſe but laugh
(ſaith he) to ſee ſo many Men venture to de-
‘ſcribe
the Earths Compaſs, relating thoſe
‘things
that are without Senſe, as that the Sea
‘flows
about the World, and that the Earth it
‘ſelf
is as round as an Orb.
But this great Ig-
norance
is not ſo much to be admired in him,
as
in thoſe Learneder Men of later times, when
all
Sciences began to flouriſh in the World.
Such were St. Chryſoſtome, who in his 14 Ho-
mily
upon the Hebrews, doth make a challenge
to
any Man that ſhall dare to defend, that the
Heavens
are Round, and not rather as a Tent.
175That the Moon may be a World. Thus likewiſe St. Auſtin, who cenſures that
Relation
of the Antipodes to be an incredible
11De civit.
Dei
lib. 16
cap
. 9.
Fable;
and with him agrees the Eloquent
Lactantius
, Quid illi qui eſſe contrarios veſtigiis
noſtris
Antipodes putant?
num aliquid loquuntur?
22Inſtiſtur,
l
. 3.
c
. 24.
aut eſt quiſpiam tam ineptus qui credat eſſe homi-
nes
, quorum veſtigia ſunt ſuperiora quâm capita?
aut ibi quæ apud nos jacent inverſa pendere? fru-
ges
&
arbores deorſum verſus creſcere, pluvias &
nives
, &
grandinem ſurſum verſus cadere in ter-
ram
?
& miratur aliquis hortos penſiles inter ſep-
tem
mira narrari, quum Pbiloſophi, &
agros &
maria
, &
urbes & montes penſiles ſaciunt, & c.
‘What
(ſaith he) are they that think there are
‘Antipodes
, ſuch as walk with their Feet
‘againſt
ours?
do they ſpeak any likelyhood?
‘or
is there any one ſo fooliſh as to believe
‘that
there are Men whoſe Heels are higher
‘than
their Heads?
that things which with us
‘do
lye on the ground, do hang there?
that
‘the
Plants and Trees grow downwards?
that
‘the
Hail, and Rain, and Snow fall upwards
‘to
the Earth?
and do we admire the hanging
‘Orchards
amongſt the ſeven Wonders, where-
‘as
here the Philoſophers have made the Field
‘and
Seas, the Cities and Mountains hanging?

What
ſhall we think (ſaith he in Plutarch) that
Men
do cling to that place like Worms, or
hang
by the Claws as Cats?
Or if we ſup-
poſe
a Man a little beyond the Center to be
digging
with a Spade;
is it likely (as it muſt
be
according to this Opinion) that the Earth
which
he looſened, ſhould of it ſelf aſcend up-
wards
?
or elſe ſuppoſe two Men with their
middles
about the Center, the Feet of the
186That the Moon may be a World. being placed where the Head of the other is,
and
ſo two other Men croſs them, yet all theſe
Men
thus ſituated according to this Opinion,
ſhould
ſtand upright, and many other ſuch groſs
conſequences
would follow (ſaith he) which a
falſe
Imagination is not able to fancy as poſſi-
ble
.
Upon which Conſiderations, Bede alſo
denies
the being of any Antipodes, Neque enim
11De ratione
temporum
.
Cap
. 32.
Antipodarum ullatenus fabulis accommodandus aſ-
ſenſus
.
‘Nor ſhould we any longer aſſent to the
‘Fable
of Antipodes.
So alſo Lucretius the
Poet
ſpeaking of the ſame Subject, ſays,
Sed vanus ſtolidis hæc omnia finxerit Error.
22De nat. re-
rum
, Lib. 1
That ſome idle fancy feigned theſe, for Fools
to
believe.
Of this Opinion was Procopius
Gazæus
, but he was perſwaded to it by ano-
33Coment. in
1
. Cap. Gen.
ther kind of Reaſon;
for he thought that all
the
Earth under us was ſunk into the Water,
according
to the ſaying of the Pſalmiſt, He
44Pſal. 24. 2. hath founded the Earth upon the Seas;
and
therefore
he accounted it not inhabited by any.
Nay, Toſtatus a Man of later Years, and gene-
ral
Learning, doth alſo confidently deny that
there
are any ſuch Antipodes, though the
Reaſon
which he urges for it, be not ſo abſurd
55Comment, in
1
. Geniſ.
as the former;
For the Apoſtles, ſaith he, tra-
velled
through the whole habitable World,
but
they never paſſed the Equinoctial;
and if
you
anſwer that they are ſaid to go through
all
the Earth, becauſe they went through all
the
known World, he replies, that this is not
ſufficient
, ſince Chriſt would have all Men to
be
ſaved, and come to the Knowledge of his
661 Tim. 2. 4. Truth, and therefore it is requiſite that
197That the Moon may be a World. ſhould have Trave@ed thither alſo, if there had
been
any Inhabitants;
eſpecially ſince he did ex-
preſly
command them to go &
Teach all Nations,
and
Preach the Goſpel through the whole World,
and
therefore he thinks, that as there are no
11Mat. 28. 16. Men, ſo neither are there Seas, or Rivers, or any
other
conveniency for Habitation.
’Tis com-
monly
related of one Virgliius, that he was Ex-
22Aventinus
Annal
Boi-
orum
lib. 3
communicated and Condemned for a Heretick
by
Zachary Biſhop of Rome, becauſe he was
not
of the ſame Opinion.
But Baronius ſays,
becauſe
he thought there was another habita-
33Annal Ec-
cleſ
. A. D.
748
.
ble World within ours.
However, you may
well
enough diſcern in theſe examples, how
confident
many of theſe great Scholars were
in
ſo groſs an Error, how unlikely, what in-
credible
thing it ſeemed to them, that there
ſhould
be any Antipodes:
and yet now this
Truth
is as certain and plain, as Senſe or De-
monſtration
can make it.
This then which I
now
deliver, is not to be rejected, though it
may
ſeem to contradict the common Opinion.
2. Groſs abſurdities have been entertained
by
general conſent.
I might Inſtance in many
remarkable
examples, but I will only ſpeak
of
the ſuppoſed Labour of the Moon in her
Eclipſes
, becauſe this is neareſt to the chieſ
matter
in hand, and was received as a common
Opinion
amongſt many of the Antients, inſo-
much
that from hence they ſtiled the Eclipſes
by
the name of πὰθη Paſſions, or in the Phraſe
of
the Poets
Solis lunæq; labores.
And therefore Plutarch ſpeaking of a
208That the Moon may be a World. Eclipſe, relates, that at ſuch time it was a
cuſtom
amongſt the Romans (the moſt civil and
Learned
People of the World) to ſound Braſs
Inſtruments
, and hold great Torches toward
the
Heaven.
Τῶν δε Ρωμαίων (ὤσπερ {ἐστὶ}ν ἐνομισ {μέν}ον)
χαλκ
{οῦ} τε τατό γι;
ὰνακαλ{ου} μένων τοφῶς ἀυτῆς {καὶ} πυ{ρὰ}
11In vita
Paul
. Æ-
mil
.
πολλὰ δαλοῖς {καὶ} δαοτίν ἀνε{χό}ντων πρός {οὐ}ῥοανον.
For
by
this means they ſuppoſed the Moon was
much
eaſed in her Labours, and therefore
Ovid
calls ſuch loud Inſtruments the Auxilia-
ries
or helps of the Moon.
Cum fruſtra reſonant æra auxiliaria Lunæ.
22Metam.
Lib
. 4.
And therefore the Satyriſt too, deſcribing a
loud
Scold, ſays, ſhe was able to make noiſe
enough
to deliver the labouring Moon.
Una laboranti poterit ſuccerrere Lunæ.
33Juven.
Sat
. 6.
Now the reaſon of all this their Ceremony,
was
, becauſe they feared the World would
fall
aſleep, when one of its Eyes began to
wink
, and therefore they would do what they
could
by loud Sounds to rouſe it from its drow-
ſineſs
, and keep it awake, by bright Torches,
to
beſtow that Light upon it which it began to
lofe
.
Some of them thought hereby to keep the
Moon
in her Orb, whereas other wiſe ſhe would
have
fallen down upon the Earth, and the
World
would have loſt one of its Lights;
for
the
credulous People believed, that Inchanters
and
Witches could bring the Moon down,
which
made Virgil ſay,
Gantus & è cælo poſſunt deducere Lunam.
219That the Moon may be a World.
And thoſe Wizzards knowing the times of her
Eclipſes
, would then threaten to ſhew their
Skill
, by pulling her out of her Orb.
So that
when
the ſilly Multitude ſaw that ſhe began to
look
red, they preſently feared they ſhould
loſe
the benefit of her Light, and therefore
made
a great noiſe that ſhe might not hear the
ſound
of thoſe Charms, which would other-
wiſe
bring her down;
and this is rendred for a
reaſon
of this cuſtom by Pliny and Propertius:
11Nat. Hiſt.
Lib
. 2. c. 12
Cantus & ſi curru lunam deducere tentant,
Et facerent, ſi non æra repulſa ſonant.
Plutarch gives another reaſon of it, and he
ſays
, ’tis becauſe they would haſten the Moon
out
of the dark ſhade wherein ſhe was involv’d,
that
ſo ſhe might bring away the Souls of thoſe
Saints
that inhabit within her, which cry out
by
reaſon they are then deprivd of their won-
ted
Happineſs, and cannot hear the Muſick
of
the Spheres, but are forced to behold the
torments
and wailing of thoſe damned Souls
which
are repreſented to them as they are
tortur’d
in the Region of the Air.
But whether
this
or whatever elſe was the meaning of this
Superſtition
, yet certainly ’twas a very ridi-
culous
cuſtom, and bewrayed a great ignorance
of
thoſe ancient times;
eſpecially ſince it was
not
only received by the vulgar, ſuch as were
Men
of leſs Note and Learning, but believed
alſo
by the more Famous and Wiſer ſort, ſuch
as
were thoſe great Poets, Steſichorus and Pir-
dar
.
And not only amongſt the more ſottiſh
Heathens
, who might account that Planet to
be
one of their Gods;
but the Primitive
2210That the Moon may be a World. ſtians alſo were in this kind guilty, which made
Ambroſe
ſo tartly to rebuke thoſe of his time,
when
he ſaid, Tum turbatur carminibus Globus
Lunæ
, quando calicibus turbantur &
oculi.
‘When your Heads are troubled with Cups,
‘then
you think the Moon to be troubled with
‘Charms
.
And for this reaſon alſo did Maximus a Biſh-
op
, write a Homily againſt it, wherein he ſhew-
11Turinenſ.
Epiſc
.
ed the abſurdity of that fooliſh Superſtition.
I
remember
that Ludovicus Vives relates a more
ridiculous
ſtory of a People that impriſoned
an
Aſs for drinking up the Moon, whoſe
Image
appearing in the Water, was covered
with
a Cloud as the Aſs was drinking, for
which
the poor Beaſt was afterwards brought
to
the Bar to receive a Sentence according to
his
deſerts, where the grave Senate being ſet
to
examin the matter, one of the Council (per-
haps
wiſer than the reſt) riſes up, and out of
his
deep judgement, thinks it not fit that their
Town
ſhould loſe its Moon, but that rather
the
Aſs ſhould be cut up, and that taken out
of
him;
which ſentence being approved by
the
reſt of thoſe Politicians, as the ſubtileſt
way
for the concluſion of the matter, was ac-
cordingly
performed.
But whether this Tale
were
true or no, I will not queſtion;
howe-
ver
, there is abſurdity enough in that former
Cuſtom
of the Ancients, that may confirm
the
Truth to be proved, and plainly declare
the
inſufficiency of common opinion to add
true
Worth or Eſtimation unto any thing.
So
that
from that which I have ſaid, may be ga-
thered
thus much.
2311That the Moon may be a World.
1. That a new Truth may ſeem abſurd and
impoſſible
, not only to the Vulgar, but to
thoſe
alſo who are otherwiſe Wiſe Men and
excellent
Schollars;
and hence it will follow,
that
every new thing which ſeems to oppoſe
common
Principles, is not preſently to be re-
jected
, but rather to be pry'd into by a dili-
gent
enquiry, ſince there are many things which
are
yet hid from us, and reſerv’d for future
Diſcovery
.
2. That it is not the commonneſs of an Opi-
nion
that can priviledge it for a Truth;
the
wrong
way is ſometime a well beaten Path,
whereas
the right way (eſpecially to hidden
Truths
) may be leſs trodden, and more ob-
ſcure
.
True indeed, the ſtrangeneſs of this Opi-
nion
will detract much from its Credit;
but
yet
we ſhould know that nothing is in it ſelf
ſtrange
, ſince every Natural Effect has an equal
dependance
upon its Cauſe, and with the like
neceſſity
doth follow from it;
ſo that ’tis our
Ignorance
which makes things appear ſo;
and
hence
it comes to paſs, that many more Evi-
dent
Truths ſeem incredible to ſuch who know
not
the cauſes of things:
you may as ſoon
perſwade
ſome Country Peaſants, that the
Moon
is made of Green-Cheeſe (as we ſay)
as
that ’tis bigger than his Cart-Wheel, ſince
both
ſeem equally to contradict his ſight, and
he
has not reaſon enough to lead him far-
ther
than his Senſes.
Nay, ſuppoſe (ſaith Plu-
tarch
) a Philoſopher ſhould be Educated in
ſuch
a ſecret place, where he might not ſee
either
Sea or River, and afterwards ſhould
2412That the Moon may be a World. brought out where one might ſhew him the
great
Ocean, telling him the quality of that
Water
, that it is brackiſh, ſalt, and not pota-
ble
, and yet there were many vaſt Creatures
of
all Forms living in it, which make uſe of
that
water as we do of the Air, queſtionleſs
he
would laugh at all this, as being monſtrous
Lies
and Fables, without any colur of Truth.
Juſt ſo will this Truth, which I now deliver,
appear
unto others;
becauſe we never dreamt
of
any ſuch matter as a World in the Moon;

becauſe
the State of that place hath as yet been
vail
'd from our Knowledge, therefore we can
ſcarcely
aſſent to any ſuch matter.
Things
are
very hardly received which are altogether
ſtrange
to our Thoughts and our Senſes.

The
Soul may with leſs difficulty be brought
to
believe any abſurdity, when as it has for-
merly
been acquainted with ſome Colours and
Probabilities
for it;
but when a new, and un-
heard
of Truth ſhall come before it, though it
have
good Grounds and Reaſons, yet the un-
derſtanding
is aſraid of it as a ſtranger, and
dares
not admit it into his Belief, without a
great
deal of Reluctancy and Tryal.
And be-
ſides
, things that are not manifeſted to the
Senſes
, are not aſſented unto without ſome
Labour
of Mind, ſome Travel and Diſcourſe
of
the underſtanding;
and many lazy Souls
had
rather quietly repoſe themſelves in an eaſie
Errour
, than take Pains to ſearch out the
Truth
.
The ſtrangeneſs then of this Opinion
which
I now deliver, will be a great hindrance
to
its belief, but this is not to be reſpected by
reaſon
it cannot be helped.
I have ſtood
2513That the Moon may be a World. longer in the Preface, becauſe that Prejudice
which
the meer Title of the Book may beget,
cannot
eaſily be removed without a great deal
of
preparation, and I could not tell otherwiſe
how
to rectifie the Thoughts of the Reader
for
an impartial Survey of the following Diſ-
courſe
.
I muſt need confeſs, though I had often
thought
with my ſelf that it was poſſible there
might
be a World in the Moon, yet it ſeem'd
ſuch
an uncouth Opinion, that I never durſt
diſcover
it, for fear of being counted ſingular,
and
ridiculous;
but after having read Plutarch,
Gallileus
, Keplar, with ſome others, and find-
ing
many of my own Thoughts confirmed by
ſuch
ſtrong Authority, I then concluded that
it
was not only poſſible there might be, but
probably
there was another habitable World
in
that Planet.
In the proſecuting of this Aſſer-
tion
, I ſhall firſt endeavour to clear the way
from
ſuch doubts as may hinder the ſpeed or
eaſe
of farther progreſs;
and becauſe the Sup-
poſitions
imply'd in this Opinion, may ſeem to
contradict
the Principles of Reaſon and Faith,
it
will be requiſite that I firſt remove this Scru-
ple
, ſhewing the conformity of them to both
theſe
, and proving thoſe Truths that may make
way
for the reſt, which I ſhall labour to perform
in
the Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Chap-
ters
, and then proceed to conform ſuch Pro-
poſitions
, which do more directly belong to
the
main point in Hand.
2614That the Moon may be a World.
PROP. II.
That a Plurality of Worlds doth not contradict any
Principle
of Reaſon or Faith.
TIS reported of Ariſtotle, that when he
ſaw
the Books of Moſes, he commended
for
ſuch a Majeſtick Style, as might become
a
God, but withal, he cenſur'd that manner
of
Writing to be very unfit for a Philoſopher:
becauſe there was nothing prov'd in them,
but
matters were deliver'd, as if they would
rather
command, than perſwade Belief.
And
?
tis obſervd that he ſets down nothing himſelf,
but
he confirms it by the ſtrongeſt Reaſon that
may
be found, there being ſcarce an Argu-
ment
of force for any Subject in Philoſophy,
which
may not be picked out of his Writings;

and
therefore ’tis likely, if there were in Rea-
ſon
a neceſſity of one only World, that he
would
have found out ſome ſuch neceſſary
proof
as might confirm it:
Eſpecially ſince he
Labours
for it ſo much in two whole Chap-
ters
.
But now all the Arguments which he
himſelf
urges in this Subject, are very weak,
and
far enough from having in them any con-
vincing
Power.
Therefore ’tis likely that a
Plurality
of Worlds doth not contradict any
Principle
of Reaſon.
However, I will ſet
down
the two chief of his Arguments from his
own
Works, and from them you may gueſs
the
force of the other.
The firſt is this, ſince every heavy Body
11Ibid. doth naturally tend downwards, and
2715That the Moon may be a World. Light Body upwards, what a hudling and con-
fuſion
muſt there be, if there were two pla-
ces
for Gravity, and two places for Lightneſs:
for it is probable that the Earth of that other
World
would fall down to this Centre, and ſo
mutually
the Air and Fire here aſcend to thoſe
Regions
in the other, which muſt needs much
derogate
from the Providence of Nature, and
cauſe
a great diſorder in his Works.
But ratio
bæc
eſt minimè firma, (ſaith Zancby.)
And if
11De operibus
Dei
. part 2.
lib
2. cap. 2
you well confider the nature of Gravity, you
will
plainly ſee there is no ground to fear any
ſuch
Confuſion;
for Heavineſs is nothing elſe
but
ſuch a quality as cauſes a Propenſion in its
Subject
to tend downwards towards its own
Centre
;
ſo that for ſome of that Earth to
come
hither, would not be ſaid a Fall, but
an
Aſcenſion, ſince it moved from its own
place
;
and this would be impoſſible (ſaith Ru-
vio
) becauſe againſt Nature, and therefore
no
more to be feared, than the falling of the
22De Cœle. 1.
I
. c. 9. 9.1.
Heavens.
If you reply, that then according to this
there
muſt be more Centres of Gravity than
one
;
I anſwer, ’Tis very probable there are,
nor
can we well Conceive what any piece of
the
Moon would do, being ſever'd from the
reſt
in the free and open Air, but only return
unto
it again.
Another Argument he had from his Maſter
33Metaphyſ.
l
. 12. c. 1.
Diog
. Laer.
lib
. 2.
Plato, that there is but one World, becauſe
there
is but one firſt Mover, God.
Infirma etiam eſt bæc ratio (ſaith Zancby) and
we
muſt juſtly deny the Conſequence, ſince a
Plurality
of Worlds doth not take away
2816That the Moon may be a World. Unity of the firſt Mover. Ut enim forma ſub-
11Nic. Hill. de
Philoſopb
.
Epic
. par-
tic
. 379.
ſtantialis, ſic primum efficiens apparentem ſolum
modo
multiplicitatum induit per ſignatum mate-
riam
(ſaith a Country-Man of ours.)
As the
ſubſtantial
form, ſo the efficient cauſe hath on-
ly
an appearing Multiplicity from its particu-
lar
Matter.
You may ſee this point more
largely
handled, and theſe Arguments more
fully
anſwered by Plutarch in his Book (why
Oracles
are ſilent) and Jacob Garpentarius in
his
Comment on Alcinous.
But our Oppoſites, the Interpreters them-
ſelves
(who too often do jurare in verba ma-
giſtri
) will grant that there is not any Strength
in
theſe Conſequences, and certainly then ſuch
weak
Arguments could not convince that wiſe
Philoſopher
, who in his other Opinions was
wont
to be ſwayed by the Strength and Pow-
er
of Reaſon:
wherefore I ſhould rather think
that
he had ſome by-reſpect, which made him
firſt
aſſent unto this Opinion, and afterwards
ſtrive
to prove it.
Perhaps it was becauſe he
feared
to diſpleaſe his Scholar Alexander, of
22Plutarcb.
de
tranq.
onim
.
whom ’tis related that he wept to hear a Diſ-
putation
of another World, ſince he had not
then
attained the Monarchy of this;
his reſt-
leſs
wide Heart would have eſteemed this
Globe
of Earth not big enough for him, if
there
had been another, which made the Sa-
tyriſt
ſay of him,
33Juvenal.
Æſtuas infelix auguſto limite mundi.
‘That he did Vex himſelf, and ſweat in his
‘deſires
, as being Pend up in a narrow Room,
‘when
he was Confin'd but to one World.
2917That the Moon may be a World. Before he thought to ſeat himſelf next the
Gods
:
but now when he had done his beſt,
he
muſt be content with ſome Equal, or per-
haps
Superiour Kings.
It may be, that Ariſtotle was moved to this
Opinion
, that he might thereby take from
Alexander
the occaſion of this Fear and Diſ-
content
;
or elſe, perhaps Ariſtotle himſelf was
as
loth to hold the Poſſibility of a World
which
he could not diſcover, as Alexander was
to
hear of one which he could not Conquer.
’Tis likely that ſome ſuch by-reſpect moved
him
to this Opinion, ſince the Arguments he
urges
for it, are confeſt by his Zealous Fol-
lowers
and Commentators, to be very ſlight
and
frivolous, and they themſelves grant, what
I
am now to prove, that there is not any Evi-
dence
in the Light of natural Reaſon, which
can
ſufficiently manifeſt that there is but one
World
.
But however ſome may Object, would it
not
be inconvenient and dangerous to admit
of
ſuch Opinions that do deſtroy thoſe Princi-
ples
of Ariſtotle, which all the World hath ſo
long
Followed?
This queſtion is much controverted by ſome
11Apologia
pro
Galilæo.
of the Romiſb Divines;
Campanella hath Writ
a
Treatiſe in defence of it, in whom you may
ſee
many things worth the Reading and No-
tice
.
To it I anſwer, That this Poſition in Philo-
ſophy
, doth not bring any Inconvenience to
the
reſt, ſince ’tis not Ariſtotle, but Truth that
ſhould
be the Rule of our Opinions, and if
they
be not both found together, we may
3018That the Moon may be a World. to him, as he ſaid to his Maſter Plato, ἀμφοῖν
{γὰ}ρὄνται φιλοιν, ὅσιν {ωρο}τιμᾶν τὴνἀλή θ{ει}ν ‘Though
11Ethic. l. 1.
c
. 9.
‘Plato were his Friend, yet he would rather
‘adhere
to Truth, than him.
I muſt needs grant, that we are all much
beholden
to the Induſtry of the Ancient Philo-
ſophers
, and more eſpecially to Ariſtotle, for
the
greater part of our Learning;
but yet ’tis
not
Ingratitude to ſpeak againſt him, when he
oppoſeth
Truth;
for then many of the Fathers
would
be very Guilty, eſpecially Juſtin, who
hath
writ a Treatiſe purpoſely againſt him.
But ſuppoſe this opinion were falſe, yet ’tis
not
againſt the Faith, and ſo it may ſerve for
the
better confirmation of that which is True;
the Sparks of Errour, being forced out by
Oppoſition
, as the Sparks of Fire by the ſtrike-
ing
of the Flint and Steel.
But ſuppoſe too,
that
it were Heretical, and againſt the Faith,
yet
may it be admitted with the ſame Privi-
ledge
as Ariſtotle, from whom many more
dangerous
Opinions have proceeded;
as, That
the
World is Eternal, That God cannot have
while
to look after theſe Inferiour things;

That
after Death there is no Reward or Pu-
niſhment
, and ſuch like Blaſphemies, which
ſtrike
directly at the Fundamentals of our Re-
ligion
.
So that it is juſtly to be wondred, why
ſome
ſhould be ſo Superſtitious in theſe Days,
as
to ſtick cloſer unto him, than unto Scripture,
as
if his Philoſophy were the only Foundation
of
all Divine Truths.
Upon theſe Grounds, both St. Vincentius,
and
Serafinus de firmo (as I have ſeen
3119That the Moon may be a World. quoted) think, That Ariſtotle was the Viol
of
Gods Wrath, which was poured out upon
the
Waters of Wiſdom, by the Third Angel;
But for my part, I think the World is much
11Rev. 16. 4. beholden to him for all its Sciences.
But yet
’twere
a ſhame for theſe later Ages to reſt our
Selves
meerly upon the Labours of our Fore-
Fathers
, as if they had informed us of all things
to
be known;
and when we are ſet upon their
Shoulders
, not to ſee further than they them-
ſelves
did.
’Twere a Superſtitious, a lazy
Opinion
, to think Ariſtotle's Works the Bounds
and
Limits of all humane Invention, beyond
which
there could be no poſſibility of reaching.
Certainly there are yet many things left to diſ-
covery
, and it cannot be any inconvenience
for
us, to maintain a new Truth, or rectifie
an
ancient Errour.
But the poſition (ſay ſome) is directly againſt
Scripture
, for
1. M@ſes tells us but of one World, and his
Hiſtory
of the Creation had been very imper-
fect
, if God had made another.
2. Saint John ſpeaking of Gods Works, ſays,
he
made the World in the ſingular Number,
and
therefore there is but one:
’tis the Argu-
22Part. 1. Q.
47
. Art. 3.
ment of Aquinas, and he thinks that none
will
oppoſe it, but ſuch who with Democritus,
eſteem
ſome blind Chance, and not any wiſe
Providence
to be the Framet of all things.
3. The Opinion of more Worlds has in
Ancient
times been accounted a Hereſie, and
33Annal.
Eccl
. A. D.
748
.
Baronius affirms, that for this very reaſon Vir-
gilius
was caſt out of his Biſhoprick, and Ex-
communicated
from the Church.
3220That the Moon may be a World.
4. A Fourth Argument there is urged by
Aquinas
;
if there be more Worlds than one,
then
they muſt either be of the ſame, or of a
divers
Nature;
but they are not of the ſame
kind
;
for this were needleſs, and would argue
11Ibid. an Improvidence, ſince one could have no
more
perfection than the other;
not of divers
kinds
, for then one of them would not be cal-
led
the World or Univerſe, ſince it did not
contain
univerſal perfection.
I have cited this
Argument
, becauſe it is ſo much ſtood upon
by
Julius Gæſar la Galla, one that has purpoſe-
ly
writ a Treatiſe againſt this Opinion which
22DePhanom.
in
orbe Lu-
na
.
I now deliver;
but the Dilemma is ſo blunt,
that
it cannot cut on either ſide;
and the Con-
ſequences
ſo weak, that I dare truſt them
without
an Anſwer.
And (by the way) you
may
ſee this later Author in that place, where
he@
endeavours to prove a neceſſity of one
World
, doth leave the chief matter in Hand,
and
take much needleſs pains to diſpute againſt
Democritus
, who thought, that the World
was
made by the caſual concourſe of Atoms in
a
great Vacuum.
It ſhould ſeem, that either
his
cauſe, or his Skill was weak, or elſe he
would
have ventur'd upon a ſtronger Adver-
ſary
.
Theſe Arguments which I have ſet
down
, are the chiefeſt which I have met with
againſt
this Subject;
yet the beſt of theſe hath
not
force enough to endanger the Truth that
I
have deliver'd.
Unto the two firſt, it may be anſwer'd, that
the
Negative Authority of Scripture is not
prevalent
in thoſe things which are not the
Fundamentals
of Religion.
3321That the Moon may be a World.
But you'l reply, though it do not neceſſa-
rily
conclude, yet ’tis probable, if there had
been
another World, we ſhould have had ſome
notice
of it in Scripture.
I anſwer, ’tis as probable that the Scripture
ſhould
have informed us of the Planets, they
being
very remarkable parts of the Creation;
and yet neither Moſes, nor Job, nor the Pſalms,
(the places moſt frequent in Aſtronomical Ob-
ſervations
) nor any other Scripture mention
any
of them, but the Sun and Moon.
Be-
cauſe
the difference betwixt them and the
other
Stars, was known only to thoſe who
were
Learned Men, and had skill in Aſtrono-
my
.
As for that expreſſion in Job רקב וביןי
11Job. 38. 7. the Stars of the Morning, it is in the plural
Number
, and therefore cannot properly be
applyed
to Venus.
And for that in Iſaiab ליגת
22Iſa. 14. 12. ’tis confeſſed to be a word of obſcure Interpre-
tation
, and therefore is but by gueſs Tranſla-
ted
in that Senſe.
It being a true and com-
mon
Rule, that Hebræi rei ſideralis minime
33From@nd.
Veſta
. t. 3.
cap
. 2.
So
2 Reg.
23
. 5.
מולות

Which
is
interpre-
ted
both
for
the
Plannets

and
for the
12
Signs.
curioſi cœleſtium nominum penuriâ laborant.
The
Fews
being but little skilled in Aſtronomy,
their
Language does want proper Expreſſions
for
the Heavenly Bodies, and therefore they
are
fane ſometimes to attribute the ſame name
unto
divers Conſtellations.
Now if the Holy Ghoſt had intended to re-
veal
unto us any Natural Secrets, certainly
he
would never have omitted the mention of
the
Planets, Zuorum motu nibil eſt quod de
Conditoris
ſapientiâ teſtatur Evidentius apud eos
44Keplar. in-
troduct
. in
Mart
.
qui capiunt.
Which do ſo evidently ſet forth
the
Wiſdom of the Creator.
And
3422That the Moon may be a World. you muſt know, that ’tis beſide the Scope of
the
Old Teſtament or the New, to diſcover
any
thing untous concerning the Secrets in Phi-
loſopy
;
’tis not his intent in the New Teſta-
ment
, ſince we cannot conceive how it might
any
way belong either to the Hiſtorical, Exe-
getical
, or Prophetical parts of it;
nor is it
his
intent in the Old Teſtament, as is well ob-
ſerv
'd by our Country-Man, Mr.
WRIGHT,
11In Epiſt. ad
Gilber
.
Non Moſis aut Prophetarum inſtitutam fuiſſe vi-
detur
Mathematicas aliquas aut Phyſicas ſubtili-
tates
promulgare, ſed ad vulgi captum &
loquen-
di
morem, quemadmodum nutrices infantulis ſo-
lent
, ſeſe accommodare.
’Tis not the endeavour
of
Moſes, or the Prophets, to diſcover any
Mathematical
or Philoſophical Subtilties,
but
rather to accommodate themſelves to Vul-
gar
Capacities, and ordinary Speech, as Nur-
ſes
are wont to uſe their Infants.
True in-
deed
, Moſes is there to handle the Hiſtory of
the
Creation.
But ’tis certain (ſaith Calvin)
that
his purpoſe is to treat only of the viſible
22Calvin in
1
Gen.
form of the World, and thoſe parts of it,
which
might be moſt eaſily underſtood by the
Ignorant
and Ruder ſort of People, and there-
fore
we are not thence to expect the diſcovery
of
any Natural Secret.
Artes reconditas aliun-
de
diſcat qui volet;
hic Spiritus Dei omnes ſi-
mul
ſine exceptione docere voluit.
As for more
hidden
Arts, they muſt be looked for elſe-
where
;
the Holy Ghoſt did here intend to in-
ſtruct
all without exception.
And therefore
’tis
obſerved, That Moſes does not any where
meddle
with ſuch matters as were very hard to
be
conceiv'd;
for being to inform the
3523That the Moon may be a World. People, as well as others, he does it after a
vulgar
way, as it is commonly noted, decla-
ring
the Original chiefly of thoſe things which
are
obvious to the Senſe, and being ſilent of
other
things, which then could not well be
apprehended
.
And therefore Pererius propo-
11Com. in
1
Gen. 11.
ſing the queſtion, why the Creation of Plants
and
Herbs is mentioned, but not of Mettals
and
Minerals?
Anſwers. Quia iſtarum rerum generatio eſt
vulgo
occulta &
ignota. Becauſe theſe things
are
not ſo commonly known as the other;
and he adds, Moſes non omnia, ſed manifeſta
omnibus
enarranda ſuſcipit.
Moſes did not in-
tend
to relate unto us the beginnings of all
all
things, but thoſe only which are moſt evi-
dent
unto all Men.
And therefore too, Aqui-
22Part. 1. 2.
68
. Art, 3.
nas obſerves, that he writes nothing of the
Air
, becauſe that being inviſible, the People
knew
not whether there were any ſuch Body
or
no.
And for this very reaſon St. Ferom alſo
33Epiſt. 139-
ad
Cypri.
So
Pererives
in
2 Gen.
thinks, that there is nothing expreſt concerning
the
Creation of Angels, becauſe the rude and
ignorant
Vulgar were not ſo capable of appre-
hending
their Natures.
And yet notwith-
ſtanding
, theſe are as remarkable parts of the
Creation
, and as fit to be known as another
World
.
And therefore the Holy Ghoſt too,
uſes
ſuch vulgar Expreſſions, which ſet things
forth
rather as they appear, than as they are,
as
when he calls the Moon one of the greater
44Gen. 1, 16 Lights, whereas ’tis the leaſt that we can ſee
in
the whole Heavens.
So afterwards ſpeaking
55Gen. 11.
Mala
. 3. 10.
of the great Rain which drowned the World,
he
ſays, The Windows of Heaven
3624That the Moon may be a World. opened, becauſe it ſeem'd to come with that
11Sir Walter
Raleigh
c. 7.
Sect
. 6.
Violence, as if it were poured out from Win-
dows
in the Firmament.
And in reference to this, a Drowth is de-
ſcrib
'd in ſundry other places, by the 22Deut. 11
17
.
1
Reg. 3.
35
.
Luk
. 4. 25.
being ſhut up.
So that the Phraſes which the
Holy
Ghoſt ſhews, concerning theſe things, are
not
to be underſtood in a literal Senſe;
but ra-
ther
as vulgar Expreſſions;
and this Rule is
ſet
down by Saint Auſtin, where ſpeaking con-
cerning
that in the Pſalm, who ſtretched the
331. 2. in Gen.
Pſal
. 1 36. 6
Earth upon the Waters, he Notes, that when
the
Words of Scripture ſhall ſeem to contra-
dict
common Senſe or Experience, there, are
they
to be underſtood in a qualified Senſe, and
not
according to the Letter.
And ’tis obſerv'd,
that
for want of this Rule, ſome of the Anci-
ents
have faſtned ſtrange Abſurdities upon the
Words
of the Scripture.
So Saint Ambroſe
44Hexamer
lib
. 2.
Item
Baſil.
Hom
3. in
Geneſ
.
Wiſd
. 2. 4.
17
. 5.
Ecclus
. 43.
3
, 4.
eſteem'd it a Hereſie to think, that the Sun and
Stars
were not very Hot, as being againſt
the
Words of Scripture, Pſalm 19.
6. where
the
Pſalmiſt ſays, that there is nothing that is
hid
from the Heat of the Sun.
So others
there
are that would prove the Heavens not
to
be Round, out of that place, Pſal.
104. 2. He
ſtretched
out the Heavens like a Curtain.
So
Procopius
alſo was of Opinion, that the Earth
55Com. in c. 1.
Gen
.
was founded upon the Waters;
Nay, he made
it
part of his Faith, proving it out of Pſal.
24. 2. He hath founded the Earth upon the Seas,
and
eſtabliſhed it upon the Floods.
Theſe and
ſuch
like Abſurdities have followed, when
Men
look for the Grounds of Philſophy in the
Words
of Scripture.
So that, from
3725That the Moon may be a World. hath been ſaid, I may conclude, that the ſilence
of
Scripture, concerning any other World, is
not
ſufficient Argument to prove that there is
none
.
Thus for the two firſt Arguments.
Unto the third, I may anſwer, That this
very
Example is quoted by others, to ſhew
the
Ignorance of thoſe Primitive Times, who
did
ſometimes condemn what they did not
underſtand
, and have often cenſur'd the Law-
ful
and undoubted Parts of Mathematicks for
Heretical
, becauſe they themſelves could not
perceive
a reaſon of it.
And therefore their
Practice
, in this particular, is no fufficient Te-
ſtimony
againſt us.
But laſtly, I anſwer to all the above nam'd
Objections
, That the Term (World) may be
taken
in a double Senſe, more Generally, for
the
whole Univerſe, as it implies in it the
Elementary
and Æthereal Bodies, the Stars
and
the Earth.
Secondly, more particularly,
for
an inferiour World conſiſting of Elements.
Now the main Drift of all theſe Arguments
is
to confute a Plurality of Worlds in the firſt
Senſe
;
and if there were any ſuch, it might,
perhaps
, ſeem ſtrange, that Moſes, or St.
John
ſhould
either not know, or not mention its
Creation
.
And Virgilius was condemned for
this
Opinion, becauſe he held, quòd ſit alius
mundus
ſub terra, aliuſque Sol &
Luna, (as Ba-
ronius
) That within our Globe of Earth, there
was
another World, another Sun and Moon,
and
ſo he might ſeem to exclude this from the
Number
of the other Creatures.
But now there is no ſuch danger in this Opi-
nion
, which is here deliver'd, ſince this World
is
ſaid to be in the Moon, whoſe Creation is
particularly
expreſt.
3826That the Moon may be a World.
So that in the firſt ſenſe, Iyield, that there
is
but one World, which is all that the Argu-
ments
do prove;
but underſtand it in the ſe-
cond
ſenſe, and ſo I affirm, there may be more,
nor
do any of the above named Objections
prove
the contrary.
Neither can this Opinion derogate from the
Divine
Wiſdom (as Aquinas thinks) but rather
Advance
it, ſhewing a Gompendium of Provi-
dence
, that could make the ſame Body a
World
, and a Moon;
a World for Habitation,
and
a Moon for the uſe of others, and the Or-
nament
of the whole Frame of Nature.
For as
the
Members of the Body ſerve not only for
the
Preſervation of themſelves, but for the
Uſe
and Convenience of the whole, as the
Hand
protects the Head, as well as ſaves its
11Cuſanus de
doct
. igner.
1
. 2. c. 12.
ſelf;
ſo is it in the parts of the Univerſe,
where
each one may ſerve as well for the
Converſation
of that which is within it, as the
Help
of others without it.
Merſennus a late Jeſuit, Propoſing the Queſti-
on
, whether or no the opinion of more Worlds
22Comment.
in
Gen.
Qu
, 19.
Art
. 2.
than one, be Heretical, and againſt the Faith?
He anſwers it negatively, becauſe it does not
Contradict
any expreſs place of Scripture, or
Determination
of the Church.
And though
(ſaith he) it ſeems to be a raſh Opinion, as be-
ing
againſt the Conſent of the Fathers;
yet, if
this
Controverſie be chiefly Philoſophical, then
their
Authorities are not of ſuch Weight.
Un-
to
this it may be added, that the conſent of the
Fathers
is prevalent only in ſuch Points as were
firſt
controverted amongſt them, and then ge-
nerally
decided one way, and not in ſuch
3927That the Moon may be a World. particulars as never fell under their Examinati-
on
and Diſpute.
I have now in ſome Meaſure, ſhewed that
a
Plurality of Worlds does not contradict any
Principle
of Reaſon, or place of Scripture,
and
ſo clear'd the firſt part of that Suppoſition
which
is imply'd in the Opinion.
It may next be enquir'd, whether ’tis poſſi-
ble
there may be a Globe of Elements in that
which
we call the Æthereal parts of the Uni-
verſe
;
for if this (as it is according to the
common
Opinion) be priviledged from any
Change
or Corruption, it will be in vain then
to
imagin any Element there;
and if we would
have
another World, we muſt then ſeek out
ſome
other place for its Scituation.
The third
Propoſition
therefore ſhall be this,
PROP. III.
That the Heavens do not conſiſt of any ſuch pure
Matter
, which can priviledge them from the
like
Change and Corruption, as theſe Inferiour,
Bodies
are liable unto.
IT hath been often queſtioned amongſt the
Ancient
Fathers and Philoſophers, what
kind
of matter that ſhould be, of which the
Heavens
are Fram'd.
Some think they conſiſt
of
a Fifth Subſtance, diſtinct from the Four
Elements
, as Ariſtotle holds, and with him
11De Cælo.
l
. 1. c. 2.
ſome of the late School-Men, whoſe ſubtile
Brains
could not be content to Attribute to
thoſe
vaſt Glorious Bodies but common Mate-
rials
, and therefore they themſelves had
4028That the Moon may be a World. rather take pains to prefer them to ſome extra-
ordinary
Nature;
whereas notwithſtanding,
all
the Arguments they could invent, were
not
able to convince a neceſſity of any ſuch
Matter
, as is confeſt by their own ſide.
It
11Colleg. con-
nimb
. de
cælo
. t. 1. c. 2
q
. 6. art. 3
were much to be deſir'd, that theſe Men had
not
in other Caſes, as well as this, Multiply-
ed
things without neceſſity, and as if there
had
not been enough to be known in the Se-
crets
of Nature, have ſpun out new Subjects
from
their own Brains, to find more Work
for
Future Ages;
I ſhall not mention their
Arguments
, ſince ’tis already confeſt, that they
are
none of them of any neceſſary conſequence:
and beſides you may ſee them ſet down in any
of
the Books de Cælo.
But it is the general Conſent of the Fathers,
and
the Opinion of Lumbard, that the Hea-
vens
conſiſt of the ſame matter with theſe
Sublunary
Bodies.
St. Ambroſe is ſo confident
of
it, that he eſteems the contrary a Hereſie.
22In Hexam.
lib
. 4.
True indeed, they differ much among them-
ſelves
, ſome thinking them to be made of
Fire
, others of Water, and others of both;
but herein they generally agree, that they are
all
fram'd of ſome Element or other.
Which
Dioniſius
Garthuſianus collects from that place
33Enarrat. in
Geneſ
. art.
EO
.
in Geneſis, where the Heavens are mention'd
in
their Creation, as divided only in diſtance
from
the Elementary Bodies, and not as being
made
of any new Matter.
To this purpoſe
others
Cire the Derivation of the Hebrew
word
מושש, quaſi שמ ibi &
מומ aquæ, or quaſi
שע
ignis &
מומ. Becauſe they are fram'd
out
of theſe Elements.
But concerning
4129That the Moon may be a World. you may ſee ſundry Diſcourſes more at large
11In opere 6.
dierum
.
diſput
. 5.
In
lib. de
Mundi

conſtit
.
in Ludovicus Molina, Euſebius Nirembergius,
with
divers others.
The Venerable Bede
thought
the Planets to conſiſt of all the four
Elements
;
and ’tis likely that the other parts
are
of an Aerous Subſtance, as will be ſhewed
after
wards;
however, I cannot now ſtand to re-
cite
the Arguments for either;
I have only
urged
theſe Authorities to countervail Ariſtotle,
and
the School-Men, and the better to make
way
for a proof of their Corruptibility.
The next thing then to be enquir'd after, is,
222 Pet. 3. 12 whether they be of a corruptible Nature, not
whether
they can be deſtroyed of God;
for
this
, Scripture puts out of doubt.
Nor whether or no in a long time they
would
wear away and grow worſe;
for from
33By Doctor
Hakewell
.
Ap
. l. lib. 2.
any ſuch Fear they have been lately priviledg-
ed
.
But whether they are capable of ſuch
changes
and viciſſitudes, as this inferiour
World
is lyable unto?
The two chief Opinions concerning this,
have
both erred in ſome extremity, the one
ſide
going ſo far from the other, that they
have
both gone beyond the Right, whilſt
Ariſtotle
hath oppos'd the Truth, as well as the
Stoicks
.
Some of the Ancients have thought, that
the
Heavenly Bodies have ſtood in need of
44Plutarch
de
plac.
philoſ
. l. 2.
c
. 17.
Nat
. Hiſt.
l
. 2. c. 9.
Nat
. quæſt.
lib
. 2. c. 5.
Nouriſhment from the Elements, by which
they
were continually Fed, and ſo had divers
Alterations
by reaſon of their Food?
Fathered on Heraclitus, followed by that great
Naturaliſt
Pliny, and in general attributed to all the Stoicks.
You may ſee Seneca
4230That the Moon may be a World. to this purpoſe in theſe Words. Ex illâ ali-
menta
omnibus animalibus, omnibus ſatis, omnibus
ſtellis
dividuntur, hinc proſertur quo fuſtineantur
tot
Sidera tam exercitata, tam avida per diem,
noctemque
, ut in opere, ita in paſtu.
Speaking
of
the Earth, he ſays, from thence it is that
Nouriſhment
is divided to all the Living
Creatures
, the Plants and the Stars;
hence
were
ſuſtain'd ſo many Conſtellations, ſo La-
borious
, ſo Greedy, both Day and Night, as
well
in their Feeding as Working.
Thus alſo
Lucan
Sings,
Necnon Oceano paſci phæbumque polumq;
Gredimus
.
Unto theſe Ptolomy alſo, that Learn'd Egyp-
11@ Apoſtel. tian, ſeem'd to agree, when he affirms that
the
Body of the Moon is moiſter, and cooler
than
any of the other Planets, by reaſon of
the
Earthly Vapours that are exhaled unto it.
You ſee theſe Ancients thought the Heavens
to
be ſo far from this imagined Incorruptibili-
ty
, that rather like the weakeſt Bodies they
ſtood
in need of ſome continual Nouriſhment,
without
which they could not ſubſiſt.
But Ariſtotle and his Followers were ſo far
22De Cælo.
l
. 1. c. 3.
from this, that they thought thoſe Glorious
Bodies
could not contain within them any ſuch
Principles
as might make them lyable to the
leaſt
Change or Corruption;
and their Chief
Reaſon
was, becauſe we could not in ſo long
a
ſpace diſcern any alteration amongſt them;
But to this I anſwer.
1. Suppoſing we could not, yet would it
not
hence follow that there were none, as
4331That the Moon may be a World. ſelf in effect doth confeſs in another place;
for ſpeaking concerning our knowledge of the
Heavens
, he ſays, ’tis very imperfect and diffi-
11De cælo. l. 2
cap
. 3. 1
cult, by reaſon of the vaſt diſtance of thoſe
Bodies
from us, and becauſe the Changes
which
may happen unto them, are not either
Big
enough, or frequent enough to fall with-
in
the Apprehenſion and Obſervation of our
Senſes
;
no wonder then if he himſelf be deceiv'd
in
his Aſſertions concerning theſe Particulars.
But yet, in this he Implies, that if a Man were
nearer
to theſe Heavenly Bodies, he would be
a
fitter Judge, to decide this Controverſie than
himſelf
.
Now its our Advantage, that by
the
help of Galileus his Glaſs, we are advanc'd
nearer
unto them, and the Heavens are made
more
Preſent to us than they were before.

However
, as it is with us where there be ma-
ny
Viciſſitudes and Succeſſions or things, tho’
the
Earth abideth for ever:
So likewiſe may it
be
amongſt the Planets, in which tho’ there
ſhould
be divers Alterations, yet they them-
ſelves
may ſtill continue of the ſame Quantity
and
Light.
2. Though we could not by our Senſes ſe@
ſuch
Alterations, yet our Reaſon might per-
haps
ſufficiently convince us of them.
Nor
can
we well conceive how the Sun ſhould re-
flect
againſt the Moon, and yet not produce
ſome
Alteration of Heat.
Diogenes the Phi-
loſoper
was hence perſwaded, that theſe
Scorching
Heats had Burnt the Moon into the
Form
of a Pumice ſtone.
3. I anſwer, that there have been ſome Al-
terations
obſerv'd there;
Witneſs thoſe
4432That the Moon may be a World. mets which have been ſeen above the Moon.
As alſo thoſe Spots or Clouds that Encompaſs
the
Body of the Sun, amongſt which, there
is
a frequent Succeſſion by a Corruption of
the
Old, and a Generation of New.
So that
though
Ariſtotle's Conſequence were ſufficient,
when
he prov'd that the Heavens were not
Corruptible
, becauſe there have not any
Changes
been diſcover'd in them:
yet this
by
the ſame Reaſon muſt be as prevalent, that
the
Heavens are Corruptible, becauſe there
have
been ſo many Alterations obſerv'd there;

But
of theſe, together with a farther Confir-
mation
of this Propoſition, I ſhall have occa-
ſion
to ſpeak afterwards;
In the mean Space,
I
will refer the Reader to that Work of Shei-
nar
, a late Jeſuit, which he Titles his Roſa
Urſina
, where he may ſee this Point concern-
11Lib. 4. par.
2
. cap. 24.
35
.
ing the Coruptibility of the Heavens, largely
Handled
, and ſufficiently conſirm'd.
There are ſome other things, on which I
might
here take an occaſion to enlarge my
ſelf
;
but becauſe they are directly Handled
by
many others, and do not immediately be-
long
to the chief matter in hand;
I ſhall there-
fore
reſer the Reader to their Authors, and
Omit
any large Proof of them my ſelf, as
deſiring
all poſſible Brevity.
1. The firſt is this: That there are no ſolid
Orbs
.
If there be a Habitable World in the
Moon
(which I now affirm) it muſt follow,
that
her Orb is not Solid as Ariſtotle ſuppos'd;
and if not hers, why any of the other. I ra-
ther
think that they are all of a Fluid (per-
haps
Aerous) Subſtance.
Saint Ambroſe,
4533That the Moon may be a World. Saint Baſil did endeavour to prove this out of
11Iſa. 51. 6.
Ant
. lect.
l
. 1. c. 4.
Hiſt
. nat.
l
. 2. c.11.13.
that place in Iſaiab, where they are compar'd
to
Smoak, as they are both quoted by Rhodi-
ginus
.
Euſebius Nicrembergius doth likewiſe
from
that place confute the Solidity and In-
corruptibility
of the Heavens, and cites for
the
ſame Interpretation the Authority of Eu-
22In lib. ſup.
Gen
. ad lit.
ſtachius of Antioch;
and St. Auſtin, I am ſure,
in
one place ſeems to aſſent unto this Opinion,
though
he does oſten in his other Works con-
tradict
it.
If you eſteem the Teſtimony of the Ancient
Fathers
, to be of any great Force or Conſe-
quence
in a Philoſophical Diſpute, you may
ſee
them to this Purpoſe in Sixtus Senenſis lib.
5. Biblioth. annot. 14. The chief Reaſons,
that
are commonly urg'd for the Confirmati-
on
of it, are briefly theſe Three.
1. From the Altitude of divers Comets,
which
have been obſerv'd to be above the
Planets
, through whoſe Orbs (if they had
been
Solid, there would not have been any
Paſſage
.
To theſe may be added thoſe leſſer
Planets
lately diſcover'd about Fupiter and
Saturn
, for which Aſtronomers have not yet
fram
'd any Orbs.
2. From that uncertainty of all Aſtronomi-
cal
Obſervations, which will follow upon the
Suppoſition
of ſuch Solid Spheres.
For then
we
ſhould never diſcern any Star but by a mul-
titude
of Refractions, and ſo conſequently we
would
not poſſibly find their true Scituations
either
in reſpect of us, or in regard of one ano-
ther
;
ſince whatever the Eye diſcerns by a
Refracted
Beam, it apprehends to be in
4634That the Moon may be a World. other place then wherein it is. But now this
would
be ſuch an Inconvenience, as would
quite
ſubvert the grounds and whole Art of
Aſtronomy
, and therefore is by no means to
be
admitted.
Unto this it is commonly Anſwer'd, that
all
thoſe Orbs are equally Diaphanus, though
not
of a continued quantity.
We reply, that
ſuppoſing
they were, yet this cannot hinder
them
from being the Cauſes of Refraction,
which
is produc'd as well by the Diverſity of
Superſicies
, as the different Perſpicuity of Bo-
dies
.
Two Glaſſes put together, will cauſe a
divers
Refraction from another ſingle one,
that
is but of Equal Thickneſs and Perſpicu-
ity
.
3. From the different Height or the ſame
Planet
at ſeveral times.
For if according to
the
uſual Hypotheſis, there ſhould be ſuch di-
ſtinct
, Solid Orbs, then it would be impoſſi-
ble
that the Planets ſhould intrench upon one
anothers
Orbs, or that two of them at ſeveral
Times
ſhould be above one another, which
notwithſtanding
hath been prov'd to be ſo by
later
Experience.
Tycho hath obſerv'd, that
Venus
is ſometimes nearer than the Sun or Mer-
cury
, and ſometimes farther off than both;
which appearances Regiomontanus himſelf does
Acknowledge
, and withal, does confeſs that
they
cannot be reconciled to the common Hy-
potheſis
.
But for your better Satisſaction herein, I
ſhall
refer you to the above nam'd Scheiner,
in
his Roſa Urſina, in whom you may ſee both
Authorities
and Reaſon, very Largely
4735That the Moon may be a World. Diſtinctly ſet down for this Opinion. For
the
better Confirmation of which he adjoins
alſo
ſome Authentical Epiſtles of Fredericus
Gæſius
Lyncæus, a Noble Prince, written to
Bellarmine
, containing divers Reaſons to the
ſame
purpoſe.
You may alſo ſee the ſame
Truth
ſet down by Fohannes Pena, in his Pre-
face
to Euclids Opticks, and Chriſtoph.
Roth-
manus
, both who thought the Firmament to
11De ſtella.
15
. 72. l. 1.
c
. 9.
be only Air:
and though the Noble Tycho do
Diſpute
againſt them, yet he himſelf holds,
Quod
propius ad veritatis penetralia accedit hæc
opinio
, quam Ariſtotelica vulgariter approbata,
quæ
cælum pluribus realibus atque imperviis orbi-
bus
citra rem replevit.
‘That this Opinion
comes nearer to the Truth, than the common
one of Ariſtotle, which hath to no purpoſe
filled the Heavens with ſuch real and Imper-
vious Orbs.
2. There is no Element of Fire, which
muſt
be held with this Opinion here deliver'd;
for if we ſuppoſe a World in the Moon, then
it
will follow, that the Sphere of Fire, either
is
not there where it is uſually placed in the
Concavity
of his Orb, or elſe that there is no
ſuch
thing at all, which is moſt probable,ſince
there
are not any ſuch Solid Orbs, that by
their
ſwift Motion might Heat and Enkindle
the
adjoyning Air, which is imagined to be
the
Reaſon of that Element.
The Arguments
that
are commonly urged to this purpoſe, are
theſe
.
1. That which was beſore alledged concer-
ning
the Refractions which will be caus'd by
a
different Medium.
For if the Matter of
4836That the Moon may be a World. Heavens be of one Thickneſs, and the Element
of
Fire another, and the upper Region of Air
diſtinct
from both theſe, and the Lower Re-
gion
ſeveral from all the reſt, there would
then
be ſuch a Multiplicity of Refractions, as
muſt
neceſſarily deſtroy the Certainty of all
Aſtronomical
Obſervations.
All which In-
conveniences
might be avoided, by ſuppoſing
(as we do) that there is only one Orb of Va-
porous
Air which encompaſſes our Earth, all
the
reſt being Æthereal, and of the ſame per-
ſpicuity
.
2. The Scituation of this Element does no
112. way agree with Ariſtotle's own Principles ;
or that common Providence of Nature, which
we
may diſcern in ordinary Matters.
For if
the
Heavens be without all Elementary Qua-
lities
, as is uſually ſuppoſed, then it would be
a
very incongruous thing for the Element of
Fire
to be placed immediately next unto it:

Since
the Heat of this is the moſt Powerful
and
Vigorous Quality that is amongſt all the
reſt
;
And Nature in her other Works, does
not
join Extreams, but by ſomething of a mid-
dle
Diſpoſition.
So in every Frame of our
Bodies
, the Bones which are of a hard Sub-
ſtance
, and the Fleſh of a ſoft, are not joined
together
but by the Interceſſion of Membranes
and
Griſſels, ſuch as being of a middle Na-
ture
may fitly come betwixt.
3. ’Tis not conceivable for what Uſe or Be-
223. nefit there ſhould be any ſuch Elements in that
Place
, and certain it is, that Nature does not
do
any thing in Vain.
4. Betwixt two Extreams there can be but
334.
4937That the Moon may be a World. one Medium, and thereſore between thoſe
two
Oppoſite Elements of Earth and Water,
it
may ſeem more convenient to place only
the
Air, which ſhall partake of Middle Qua-
lities
different from both.
5. Fire does not ſeem ſo properly and di-
115 rectly to be oppos'd to any thing as Ice;
and
if
the one be not an Element, why ſhould the
other
?
If you object that the Fire which we com-
monly
uſe, does always tend upwards.
I an-
ſwer
, This cannot prove that there is a natu-
ral
place for ſuch an Element, ſince our Ad-
verſaries
do grant, that culinary and elementary
Fire
are of different kinds.
The one does
Burn
, Shine, and Corrupt its Subjects;
the
other
diſagrees from it in all theſe reſpects:
And therefore from the Aſcent of the one, we
cannot
properly infer the Being or Scituation
of
the other.
But for your further Satisfaction herein,
you
may peruſe Gardan;
Foannes Pena that
Learned
Frenchman, the Noble Tycho, with
divers
others, who have purpoſely Handled
this
Propoſition.
3. I might add a Third, viz. that there is no
223 Muſick of the Spheres;
for if they be not
Solid
, how can their Motion cauſe any ſuch
Sound
as is Conceiv'd?
I do the rather meddle
with
this, becauſe Plutarch ſpeaks as if a Man
might
very conveniently hear that Harmony,
if
he were an Inhabitant in the Moon.
But I
gueſs
that he ſaid this out of Incogitancy, and
did
not well conſider theſe neceſſary Conſe-
quences
which depend upon his Opinion.
5038That the Moon may be a World. However, the World would have no great
Loſs
in being depriv'd of this Muſick, unleſs
at
ſome times we had the priviledge to hear
it
:
Then indeed Philo the Jew thinks it would
ſave
us the Charges of Dyet, and we might
11De ſomniis. Live at an eaſier Rate, by feeding on the Ear
only
, and receiving no other Nouriſhment;
and for this very Reaſon (ſays he) was Moſes
Enabled
to tarry Forty Days and Forty Nights
in
the Mount without eating any thing, be-
cauſe
he there heard the Melody of the Hea-
vens
.
-Riſum teneatis. I know this Muſick
hath
had great Patrons, both Sacred and Pro-
phane
Authors,ſuch as Ambroſe, Bede, Boetius,
Aneſelme
, Plato, Cicero, and others;
but be-
cauſe
it is not now, I think, Affirm'd by any,
I
ſhall not therefore beſtow eìther Pains or
Time
in arguing againſt it.
It may ſuffice that I have only Named theſe
Three
laſt, and for the two more neceſſary,
have
referred the Reader to others for ſatis-
faction
.
I ſhall in the next place Proceed to
the
Nature of the Moons Body, to know whe-
ther
that be Capable of any ſuch Conditions,
as
may make it poſſible to be Inhabited, and
what
thoſe Qualities are wherein it more near-
ly
Agrees with our Earth.
PROP. IV.
That the Moon is a Solid, Compacted, Opacous
Body
.
I Shall not need to ſtand long in the Proof of
this
Propoſition, ſince it is a Truth
5139That the Moon may be a World. agreed on by the General Conſent of the moſt,
and
the beſt Philoſophers.
1. It is Solid, in Opoſition to Fluid, as is the
Air
;
for how otherwiſe could it beat back
the
Light which it receives from the Sun?
But here it may be Queſtioned, whether
or
no the Moon beſtow her light upon us, by
the
Reflection of the Sun-beams from the Su-
perficies
of her Body, or elſe by her own illu-
mination
?
Some there are who affirm this
11a De Cælo
l
. 2.com.49.
b
Ante le-
ction
.li. 20.
c
. 4.
c
De pbæ-
nom
. Lunæ
c
. II.
latter part.
So (a) Averroes, (b) Gælius Rho-
diginus
, (c) Fulius Gæſar &
c. And their Rea-
ſon
is, becauſe this Light is diſcern'd in many
Places
, whereas thoſe Bodies which give
Light
by Reflexion, can there only be percei-
ved
where the Angel of Reflexion is Equal
to
the Angel of Incidence, and this is only in
one
place, as in a Looking Glaſs, thoſe Beams
which
are reflected from it, cannot be percei-
ved
in every place where you may ſee the
Glaſs
, but only there where your Eye is pla-
ced
on the ſame Line whereon the Beams are
Reſlected
.
But to this I anſwer, That the Argument
will
not hold of ſuch Bodies, whoſe Superfi-
cies
, is full of Unequal parts and Giboſities
as
the Moon is.
Wherefore ’tis as well the
more
probable, as the more common Opini-
on
, that her Light proceeds from both theſe
Cauſes
, from Reflexion and Illumination;
nor doth it herein differ from our Earth, ſince
that
alſo hath ſome Light by Illumination:

for
how otherwiſe would the Parts about us
in
a Sun-ſhine Day appear ſo Bright, when as
the
Rays of Reflexion cannot Enter into our
Eye
?
5240That the Moon may be a World.
For the better Illuſtration oſ this, we may
conſider
ſeveral ways whereby divers Bodies
are
enlightned.
Either as Water, by admit-
ting
the Beams into its Subſtance;
or as Air
and
thin Clouds, by Tranſmitting their Rays
quite
thorow their Bodies;
or as thoſe things
which
are of an Opacous Nature, and ſmooth
Superficies
, which reflect the Light only in
one
place;
or elſe, as thoſe things which are
of
an Opacous Nature, and Rugged Superſi-
cies
, which by a kind of Circumfluous Re-
flexion
, are at the ſame time Diſcernable in
many
places, as our Earth, and the Moon.
2. It is Compact, and not a Spungey and
112 Porous Subſtance.
But this is denyed by (a)
Diogenes
, (b) Vitellio, (c) Reinoldus, and ſome
22a Plut. de
pla
. phil.
l
. 2. c. 13.
b
Opt.lib.4.
c
Com. Pur-
bac
. Theo.p.
164
.
other, who held the Moon to be of the ſame
kind
of Nature as a Pumice-Sone;
and this,
ſay
they, is the reaſon why in the Suns Eclipſes
there
appears within her a duskiſh ruddy Co-
lour
, becauſe the Sun Beams being Refracted
in
paſſing through the Pores of her Body, muſt
neceſſarily
be Repreſented under ſuch a Co-
lour
.
But I Reply, if this be the Cauſe of her
Redneſs
, then why doth ſhe not appear under
the
ſame Form when ſhe is about a Sextile Aſ-
pect
, and the Darkned part of her Body is
Diſcernable
?
for then alſo do the ſame Rays
paſs
through Her, and therefore in all likely-
hood
ſhould produce the ſame Effect;
and
notwithſtanding
thoſeBeams are then diverted
from
us, that they cannot enter into our Eyes
by
a ſtraight Line, yet muſt the Colour ſtill
remain
Viſible in her Body.
And beſides,
5341That the Moon may be a World. cording to this Opinion, the ſpots would not
always
be the ſame, but divers, as the vari-
ous
diſtance of the Sun requires.
Again, if
the
Sun Beams did paſs through Her, why
then
hath ſhe not a Tail (ſaith Scaliger) as the
11Scaliger
Exer
cit. 80.
ſect
. 18.
Comets?
why doth ſhe appear in ſuch an ex-
act
Round?
and not rather Attended with a
long
Flame, ſince it is meerly this Penetration
of
the Sun Beams, that is uſually Attributed
to
be the Cauſe of Beards in Blaſing Stars.
3. It is Opacous, not Tranſparent or Dia-
223 phanous, like Chryſtal or Glaſs, as Empedo-
33Plut. de fæ-
cie
Lunæ.
cles thought, who held the Moon to be a
Globe
of pure Congeal'd Air, like Hail inclo-
ſed
in a Sphere of Fire;
for then,
1. Why does ſhe not always appear in the
Full
?
ſince the Light is Diſperſed through all
her
Body.
2. How can the Interpoſition of her
44Thucid.
Livii
.
Plut
. de fd
cie
Lunæ.
Body ſo Darken the Sun, or cauſe ſuch great
Eclipſes
as have turned Day into Night, that
have
diſcover'd the Stars, and Frighted the
Birds
with ſuch a ſudden Darkneſs, that they
fell
down upon the Earth, as is related in di-
vers
Hiſtories.
And thereſore Herodotus tel-
ling
of anEclipſe which fell in Xerxes's time, de-
ſcribesitthus
, ἥλι {ος} ἐκλιπῶ, τὴυ {κ}τ{οῦ} {οὐ}ραν{οῦ} ὲδρην
55Herodot. l.
7
. c. 37.
ἀφανὴς {ἦν}.
The Sun leaving its wonted Seat in
the
Heavens, Vaniſhed away ;
all which argues
ſuch
a great Darkneſs, as could not have been,
if
her Body had been Perſpicuous.
Yetſome
there
are who Interpret all theſe Relations to
be
Hyberbolical Expreſſions;
and the Noble
Tycho
thinks it naturally impoſſible that any
Eclipſe
ſhould cauſe ſuch Darkneſs;
5442That the Moon may be a World. the Body of the Moon can never Totally co-
ver
the Sun.
However in this he is ſingular,
all
other Aſtronomers (if I may believe Kep-
lar
) being on the Contrary Opinion, by Rea-
ſon
the Diameter of the Moon does for the
moſt
part appear Bigger to us than the Di-
ameter
of the Sun.
But here Fulius Gœſar once more puts in to
11De phœ-
nom
. Lunœ
c
. 11.
hinder our Paſſage.
The Moon (ſaith he) is
is
not altogether Opacous, becauſe ’tis ſtill
of
the ſame Nature with the Heavens, which
are
incapable of total Opacity:
and his Reaſon
is
, becauſe Perſpicuity is an inſeparable Acci-
dent
of thoſe purer Bodies;
and this he thinks
muſt
neceſſarily be granted;
for he ſtops there,
and
Proves no further;
but to this he Defers
an
Anſwer, till he hath made up his Argument.
We may frequently ſee, that her Body
does
ſo Eclipſe the Sun, as our Earth does
the
Moon.
And beſides, the Mountains that
are
obſerv'd there, do caſt a Dark Shadow
behind
them, as ſhall be ſhewed afterwards.
22Prop. 9. Since then the like Interpoſition of them both,
doth
produce the like Effect, they muſt ne-
ceſſarily
be of the like Natures, that is, alike
Opacous
, which is the thing to be ſhewed;
and
this
was the reaſon (as Interpreters gueſs) why
Ariſtotle
Affirmed the Moon to be of the
33In lib. de
animalib
.
Earths Nature, becauſe of their Agreement
in
Opacity, whereas all the other Elements,
ſave
that, are in ſome meaſure Perſpicuous.
But, the greateſt Difference which may
ſeem
to make our Earth altogether unlike
the
Moon, is, becauſe the one is a Bright
Body
, and hath Light of its own, and
5543That the Moon may be a World. other a Groſs, Dark Body, which cannot
Shine
at all.
’Tis requiſite therefore that in
the
next place I clear this doubt, and ſhew that
the
Moon hath no more Iight of her own than
our
Earth.
PROP. V.
That the Moon hath not any Light of her own.
TWas the fancy of ſome of the Jews, and
more
eſpecially of Rabbi Simeon, that the
Moon
was nothing elſe but a Contracted Sun,
11Toſtatus in
I
Gen.
Hyeron
. de
Sancta
fide.
Hebrœo-
maſt
.12.c.4.
and that both thoſe Planets at their firſt Cre-
ation
, were equal both in Light and quantity.
For, becauſe God did then call them both
great
Lights, therefore they inferred that
they
muſt be both equal in bigneſs.
But a while
after
(as the Tradition goes) the Ambitious
Moon
put up Her Complaint to God againſt
the
Sun, ſhewing that it was not fit there ſhould
be
two ſuch great Lights in the Heavens;
a
Monarchy
would beſt become the place of Or-
der
and Harmony.
Upon this, God Comman-
ded
Her to contract her ſelf into a Narrower
compaſs
;
but ſhe being much diſcontented
hereat
, replies, What! becauſe I have ſpoken
that
which is Reaſon and Equity, muſt I there-
fore
be diminiſhed;
This Sentence could not
chuſe
but much trouble Her;
and for this Rea-
ſon
was ſhe in great diſtreſs and grief for a long
ſpace
, but that her Sorrow might be ſome
way
pacified, God bid her be of good Cheer,
becauſe
her Priviledges and Charter ſhould
be
greater than the Suns;
he ſhoulld appear in
the
Day time only, ſhe both in the Day
5644That the Moon may be a World. Night; but her Melancholly being not ſatis-
fied
with this, ſhe replied again, That that alaſs
was
no benefit;
for in the Day time, ſhe
ſhould
be either not ſeen, or not noted.
Where-
fore
, God to Comfort Her up, promiſed, that
his
People the Iſraelites ſhould Celebrate all
their
Feaſts and Holy Days by a Computation
of
her Months;
but this being not able to
Content
Her, ſhe has looked very Melancholly
ever
ſince;
however ſhe hath ſtill reſerved
much
light of her own.
Others there were, that did think the Moon
to
be a Round Globe;
the one half of whoſe
Body
was of a bright Subſtance, the other half
being
dark;
and the divers Converſions of
thoſe
ſides towards our Eyes, cauſed the Variety
of
her apperances:
of this Opinion was Beroſus,
as
he is cited by Vitruvius;
and St. 11Lib. 9.
Archite-
cturœ
.
thought it was probable enough.
But this fancy
is
almoſt equally abſurd with the former, and
22Narratio
Pſalmorum
.
item
.ep. 119
both of them ſound rather like Fables, than
Philoſophical
Truths.
You may Commonly ſee
how
this latter does Contradict frequent and
eaſie
experience;
for ’tis obſerved, that that
ſpot
which is perceiv'd about her middle, when
ſhe
is in the Encreaſe, may be diſcern'd in the
ſame
place when ſhe is in the Full:
whence it
muſt
follow, that the ſame part which was be-
fore
darkened, is after inlighten'd, and that the
one
part is not always Dark, and the other
Light
of it ſelf.
But enough of this, I would
be
loth to make an Enemy, that I may after-
wards
overcome him, or beſtow time in Pro-
ving
that which is already granted, I
5745That the Moon may be a World. now, that neither of them hath any Patrons,
and
therefore need no Confutation.
’Tis agreed upon by all ſides, that this
Planet
receives moſt of her Light from the
Sun
;
but the cheif controverſie is, whether
or
no ſhe hath any of her own?
The greater
Multitude
affirm this.
Gardan amongſt the reſt
11De Subt il,
lib
. 4.
is very confident of it, and he thinks that if any
of
us were in the Moon at the time of her
greateſt
Eclipſe, Lunam aſpiceremus non ſecus ac
innumeris
cereis ſplendidiſſimis accenſis atque in
eas
oculis defixis cœcutiremus.
‘We ſhould
‘perceive
ſo great a Brightneſs of our own,
‘that
would blind us with the meer Sight, and
‘when
ſhe is enlightned by the Sun, then no
‘Eagles
Eye (if there were any there) is able
‘to
look upon her.
This Gardan ſays, and he
does
but ſay it, without bringing any Proof
for
its Confirmation.
However I will ſet
down
the Arguments that are uſually urged
for
this Opinion, and they are taken either from
Scripture
, or Reaſon;
from Scripture is urged
that
Place, 1 Gor.
15. where it is ſaid, There
is
one Glory of the Sun, and another Glory of the
Moon
.
Ulyſſes Albergettus urges that in Math. 24.
20. σελ{ήν}η {οὐ} δωσ{ετ} τὸ φέ{γγ} {ος} ἀυτῆς The Moon
ſhall
not give her Light:
therefore (ſays he)
ſhe
hath ſome of her own.
But to theſe we may eaſily Anſwer, that
the
Glory and Light there ſpoken of, may be
ſaid
to be hers, though it be derived, as you
may
ſee in many other Inſtances.
The Arguments from Reaſon are taken ei-
ther
,
1. From that Light which is Diſcern'd
5846That the Moon may be a World. her, when there is a total Eclipſe of her own
Body
, or of the Sun.
2. From the Light which is Diſcerned in
the
Darker part of her Body, when ſhe is but
a
little Diſtant from the Sun.
1. For when there are any total Eclipſes,
there
appears in her Body a great redneſs, and
many
times Light enough to cauſe a remarka-
ble
ſhade, as common Experience doth ſuffi-
ciently
manifeſt:
but this cannot come from
the
Sun, ſince at ſuch times either the Earth or
her
own body ſhades her from the Sun-Beams;
therefore it muſt proceed from her own Light.
2. Two or three Days after the new
Moon
, we may preceive Light in her whole
Body
, whereas the Rays of the Sun reflect but
upon
a ſmall part of that which is Viſible;
therefore ’tis likely that there is ſome Light
of
her own.
In anſwering to theſe Objections, I ſhall
firſt
ſhew, that this Light cannot be her own,
and
then declare that which is the true Reaſon
of
it.
That it is not her own, appears,
1. Becauſe then ſhe would always retain
it
, but ſhe has been ſometimes altogether In-
viſible
, when as not withſtanding ſome of the
fixed
Stars of the fourth or fifth Magnitude
11Keplar.
epit
.
Aſtron
. cap.
l
. 6. p. 5.
ſect
. 2.
might eaſily have been diſcerned cloſe by her,
As
it was in the year 1620.
2. This may appear likewiſe from the Va-
riety
of it at divers times;
for ’tis commonly
Obſerv
'd that ſometimes ’tis of a brighter,
ſometimes
of a darker Appearance;
now Red-
der
, and at another time of a more